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Essential Career Options

Essential career options may vary depending on the individual's field of education, abilities and interests. The public sector, private sector, academia, NGOs and the entrepreneurial sector are the main elements of career options. In this article, you can answer the questions you have about these career options.

1. Career Options in the Public Sector

The public sector is a sector that employs individuals to provide public services. Although the areas of the public sector vary from country to country, it generally provides employment in the fields of education, health, transportation, security and bureaucracy. Under Turkish conditions, qualification exams are held for recruitment to the public sector. These exams are divided into group A and group B:

Group A Squads

Group A positions are opened by appointing candidates who have received the minimum score determined for the institution to which they will apply from the Public Personnel Selection Examination (KPSS) to the main title among those who are successful in the oral and written exams held by the institution. Civil servants are recruited from all faculty graduates. Appointments are made to various ministries and directorates with titles such as inspector/assistant inspector, expert/assistant expert, etc.

In addition, candidates who want to be appointed to Group A positions must take the Foreign Language Proficiency Exam and meet at least the base score requirement determined by the institution to be applied for.


After this stage, it is necessary to follow the announcements of the institution or institutions to which you will apply with the KPSS and YDS scores obtained.


Group B Squads

Group B positions are the quotas allocated by ÖSYM after the KPSS exam, in which all students can participate. The occupational opportunities of group B include professions such as engineer, lawyer, technician, psychologist, civil servant and computer teacher. Rankings are evaluated with the scores obtained from the general skills-general knowledge section of KPSS.

2. Career Options in the Private Sector

The private sector is a dynamic sector that offers a wide range of job opportunities. Private companies in many different industries offer a variety of career opportunities. There are jobs that require expertise in many fields, from planning to marketing, from finance to information technologies.


The career process usually consists of several basic stages. First, it is important to obtain appropriate training and experience. Then the job search process begins. At this stage, a CV is created, job postings are applied, interviews are attended and interviews are held. Communication skills, problem-solving skills and adaptability are at the forefront in job interviews.

For more detailed information and other questions about the process, you can also take a look at our article titled Things to Consider in the Interview.

3. Academic Career Options

Academic staff is a group of experts who generally work at universities and manage and update educational processes, engage in research activities, and provide thesis consultancy. These people can be at various academic levels such as Professor, Associate Professor, Lecturer. Although the duties of academic staff vary depending on their level, their common goal is to effectively fulfill research, teaching and administrative responsibilities. In this context, their duties include providing education to students in their fields of expertise, creating interactive educational environments, keeping teaching materials up-to-date, and evaluating students' development.

In order to become an academic personnel, it is first necessary to obtain a bachelor's degree, take the Academic Personnel and Graduate Education Entrance Exam (ALES) and meet the relevant exam grade point average. In addition, it is necessary to take and pass the Foreign Language Exam (YDS) and participate in written and oral interviews. Academics who want to advance in their careers must meet the academic qualification requirements specified in the relevant legislation.

For those who want to step into an academic career, there are some basic steps that should be focused on during the university years. First, it is important to prioritize and maintain a high academic performance to achieve academic success. Secondly, improving foreign language skills is also an important step. A good command of English is essential to benefit from academic literature. Passing foreign language exams or obtaining valid certificates is useful to formalize knowledge of the language and be more effective in future research.

To get more detailed information about the process, you can review our article titled Graduate Application Processes.

4. Career Options in NGOs

Nowadays, individuals not only focus on their own careers but also desire to add value to their societies. At this point, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have become very attractive options for those who want to make a career.

NGOs are organizations that produce solutions to various social problems, try to ensure social justice and generally work on a volunteer basis. A career in these organizations brings not only individual success but also the opportunity to contribute to society.

While making a career in NGOs, it is inevitable to develop skills such as problem solving, communication and teamwork. Taking part in these organizations offers you the chance to support not only your individual career but also social transformation.

5. Entrepreneurship and Self-Employment Career Options

Entrepreneurship is an exciting career path for many people. Starting and running your own business provides not only financial gain, but also the opportunity to follow your passions and write your own story. However, this journey involves much more than bringing an idea to life.

Entrepreneurship begins with the desire to succeed in something you are passionate about. You need internal motivation to cope with the difficulties you may encounter in the process of starting a business. At the same time, you must have a clear vision of the future and work determinedly to realize this vision.


If you have ideas about entrepreneurship, you can contact our Project Support Office.



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